|Years||Total||BC||LXX Years||LXX total||LXX BC|
|1 Ki 11:42|
|2Sa 5:14; 12:24; 1Ki 1:10-13, 17, 19, 21, 26, 30, 33-34, 37-39, 43, 46-47, 51-53; 2:1, 2:12-13, 17, 19, 22-23, 25, 27, 29, 41, 45-46; 3:1, 3-6, 10, 15, 21, 25-27, 29,34; 5:1-2, 7-8, 10-13, 15; 6:2, 11, 14, 21; 7:1, 8, 13-14, 40, 45, 47-48, 51; 8:1-2, 5, 12, 22, 54, 63, 65; 9:1-2, 10-12, 15, 17, 19, 21-22, 24-28; 10:1-4, 10, 13-14, 16, 21, 23-24, 26; 11:1-2, 4-7, 9, 11, 14, 25, 27--28, 31, 40-43; 1 Ch 3:5; 14:4; 18:8; 22:5-7, 9, 17; 23:1; 28:5-6, 9, 11, 20; 29:1, 19, 22-25, 28; 2Ch 1:1-3, 5-8, 11, 13-14; 2:1-3; 11, 17; 3:1, 3; 4:11, 16, 18-19; 5:1-2, 6; 6:1, 13; 7:1, 5, 7-8, 10-12; 8:1, 3, 6, 8-12, 16-18; 9:1-3, 9--10, 13-15, 20, 22-23, 25, 28-31; Ne 13:26; Ps 72:0; 127:0; Pr 1:1; 10:1; 25:1; SS 1:5; 3:7, 9, 11; 8:11-12; Jer 52:20; Mt 1:6-7; 6:29; 12:42; Lk 11:31; 12:27; Ac 7:47|
Solomon is the fourth of those recorded born to David in Jerusalem. He is one of four born to Bath-shua (Bathsheba) the daughter of Ammiel. Of the six earlier sons born in Hebron and nine other sons listed in 1Ch 3:6-7 and the unnamed sons of the concubines, Solomon was probably among the youngest (1Ki 3:7; 1Ch 22:5).
David's oldest surviving son Adonijah proclaimed himself king in David's old age. He had support from Joab and other high ranking officials of David's. However, Nathan the prophet went to Bathsheba and had her intercede with David on Solomon,s behalf. David proclaimed Solomon his successor and he was anointed and placed on the throne as King. David charged Solomon to walk in the way of the Lord and keep His ways. Solomon had Adonijah executed because he could not be trusted. Joab was also executed. David had accused Joab to Solomon that Joab shed the blood of war in peace and Joab had conspired with Adonijah. Before his death, David also charged Shimei to Solomon. At the time of Absolom's rebellion, Shimei had cursed David violently but David let him live. David told Solomon to use his wisdom when punishing Shimei. After David had died, Solomon summoned Shimei and told him to build a house in Jerusalem and that he could live as long as he did not leave Jerusalem. But after three years two of Shimei's servants ran away. Shimei left Jerusalem to get the servants and bring them back. Thus, Solomon had him executed for all the harm he had brought to David.
Solomon allied with Pharoh king of Egypt and married Pharoh's daughter. The people were still sacrificing to the Lord in high places because there was no house built for the Lord. Solomon went to Gibeon, the great high place and made a thousand burnt offerings to the Lord. The Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream and said: "Ask what you wish Me to give you." Solomon asked for an understanding heart to judge the Lord's people to discern between good and evil. The Lord was pleased with Solomon's unselfish request and gave him "a wise and discerning heart, so that there has been no one like you before you, nor shall one like you arise after you." The Lord also gave him what he did not ask for, "both riches and honor so that there will not be any among the kings like you in all your days."(1Ki 3:13) The Lord promised to prolong Solomon's days if he walked in the ways of the Lord like his father David. The example of Solomon resolving the dispute of the two women about who a baby belonged to, so impressed the people that they knew that the wisdom of the Lord was with Solomon to administer justice. Israel prospered and Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates River to the land of the Philistines and the border of Egypt. Solomon's wisdom was known throughout the land.
Solomon requested from Hiram king of Tyre materials to build the Temple of the Lord. King Hiram provided the cedar and juniper logs from Lebanon and Solomon provided food fo Hiram's royal household. Solomon conscripted many thousands of laborers to cut timber and quarry stone to build the temple. "In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, the second month, he began to build the temple of the LORD."(1 Ki 6:1) "In the eleventh year in the month of Bul, the eighth month, the temple was finished in all its details according to its specifications. He had spent seven years building it."(1Ki 6:38) "It took Solomon thirteen years, however, to complete the construction of his palace."(1Ki 7:1) "Then King Solomon summoned into his presence at Jerusalem the elders of Israel, all the heads of the tribes and the chiefs of the Israelite families, to bring up the ark of the LORD’s covenant from Zion, the City of David."(1Ki 8:1)
King Solomon and the entire assembly of Israel gathered before the ark and sacrificed so many sheep and cattle they could not be counted. The ark was placed in the inner sanctuary of the temple, the Most Holy Place. When the priests withdrew from the Holy Place the cloud filled the temple of the Lord and the glory of the Lord filled his temple. Solomon then made a prayer of dedication before the whole assembly of Israel. Then the king and all Israel offered sacrifices before the Lord; 22,00 cattle and 122,000 sheep and goats.
When Solomon had finished building the temple of the Lord and the royal palace the Lord appeared to Solomon a second time as he had appeared at Gideon. The Lord promised to establish Solomon's royal throne over Israel forever and that he shall never fail to have a successor on the throne of Isreal. But if his descendants should turn away from the commandments of the Lord and serve other gods that Israel shall be cut off from the land and the temple will be rejected and become a heap of rubble.
At the end of twenty years, Solomon gave twenty towns in Galilee to Hiram. But Hiram was not pleased with the towns. Solomon built up and fortified Jerusalem, Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer. Pharaoh had attacked and captured Gezer and killed the Canaanites there as a wedding gift to his daughter, Solomon's wife. The forced labor Solomon conscripted to build the temple, the palace and the other works were from the people left from the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites remaining in the land after Israel occupied it whom they could not exterminate. Solomon did not make slaves of any of the Israelites. Solomon also built ships on the shore of the Red Sea. Hiram sent sailors who knew the sea to serve in the fleet with Solomon's men. They brought back 16 tons of gold (about a billion dollars in 2020 value). Some of the remains of buildings recently discovered at Megiddo and Gezer may go back to the time of Solomon.
The queen of Sheba heard about the fame of Solomon and his relationship to the Lord and came to test Solomon with questions. She came to Jerusalem with a large caravan. Sheba was probably either what is now Yemen or possibly Ethiopia. The queen was overwhelmed by Solomon's wisdom, the palace, the officials and servants and the burnt offerings at the temple. She gave the king 4.5 tons of gold and large quantities of spices. King Solomon gave her all she desired and asked for. Then she left with her retinue and returned to Sheba.
Solomon received 25 tons of gold yearly (about $1.3 billion at 2020 value) not including merchant revenues. He made 200 16 lb large and 300 3.75 lb small solid gold shields, a great ivory throne overlaid with gold and all goblets and household articles were gold. Because gold was so plentiful, silver was considered nearly worthless in the time of Solomon. Once every three years his fleet of ships returned carrying gold, silver, ivory, and apes and baboons. Solomon was greater in riches and wisdom than all the other kings of the earth. The whole world sought an audience to hear his wisdom and brought gifts of riches. Solomon accumulated 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horses which he kept in chariot cities and Jerusalem. His horses were imported from Egypt and he also exported hoses to other kings.
There is no record of children born to his wife the Pharoah's Daughter. She may have died young. The only other wife named is Naamah the Ammonite. According to an addition in the Septuagint following 1 Kings (LXX) 12:24, "her name was Naaman, the daughter of Ana (Hanun) son of Nahash, king of the sons of Ammon". So she was descended from Ammon, a son of Abraham's nephew Lot and Lot's daughter. She is the mother of Rehoboam, the only son of Solomon known. Two daughters are named in 1Ki 4:11, 15. Solomon loved many foreign women including Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians, and Hittites. They were from nations the Lord had told Israelites, "You must not intermarry with them, because they will surely turn your heart after their gods." He had 700 wives of royal birth and 300 concubines, and his wives led him astray. As he grew old these wives turned his heart to other gods and he set up detestable places of worship. So Solomon did evil in the eyes of the Lord and did not follow the Lord completely. The Lord told Solomon he would tear the kingdom from him and give it to a subordinate. However, for the sake of David, not during Solomon's lifetime but from his son. For the sake of David, Solomon's son would retain one tribe.
The Lord raised up Hadad the Edomite as an adversary to Solomon. Hadad had escaped as a child from Joab, David's commander when Joab defeated the Edomites. God also raised up Rezon son of Eliada as Solomon's adversary, who had fled from his master, Hadadezer king of Zobah when David destroyed Zobah's army. Rezen ruled in Aram and was hostile to Israel. Jeroboam son of Nabat rebelled against Solomon. He was an Ephraimite official of Solomon's from Zeredah. His mother was a widow named Zeruah. The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh told Jeroboam would tear ten tribes from the kingdom of Solomon. "Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, but Jeroboam fled to Egypt, to Shishak the king, and stayed there until Solomon’s death." (1 Ki 11:40) Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel 40 years and then he died. Rehoboam his son succeeded him as king.
Solomon is the author of many of the proverbs, some of the Psalms, the Song of Songs and is credited with Ecclesiastes. Solomon is stated to have wrote 3,000 proverbs or stories and composed 1,005 songs; (1 Ki 4:32).
Links: David_Family Tree:Solomon , Kings Table:Solomon